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Buildings and Their Systems
3. Identify Basic Structural Components of Residential Construction
There are 4 main structural components of a home, together they are known as the building shell.
1. Roof - truss designs are scissor truss, hip and vault.
2. Vertical supports - for walls use either 2x4 or 2x6 wood studs. For energy efficiency, more insulation can fit in between a 2x6 stud and reduces the thermal bridging that occurs more often in a 2x4 stud. Other components of a vertical support include: headers, jams, kind studs and threshold. Rim joist support the main level floor between the foundation and the vertical supports. Band joists support the upper level floor. Balloon framing is a common type of construction pre-1960s, where the walls are open from the basement to the attic.
3. Floors - include the floor joist, subfloor, carpet, laminate, tile or wood.
4. Foundation - is the concrete slab, footing, gravel, keyway, rebar, anchor bolts, wire mesh, sand and vapor barrier. It can also include the crawlspace if there is one present with piers and beams under the floor or stem wall.
2a. Building Components
2b. Conservation Strategies
2c. Comprehensive Building Assessment Process
2d. Design considerations